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Let's face it: every minute of every day, someone, somewhere, is patrolling the Web looking for sites to hack. ASP.NET developers must constantly be on their guard to ensure attempted hacks can't be successful. That means constraining and validating user input, accessing databases securely, storing sensitive data securely, and generally writing secure code that repels rather than accommodates these malevolent hackers.
A classic form of hack attack that ASP.NET sites must defend against is session hijacking. Simply put, session hijacking entails connecting to a Web site and accessing someone else's session state. The severity of the damage incurred depends on what's stored in session state. If sessions hold shopping cart information and users are required to verify their identities before checking out, session hijacking might not be very damaging. If sessions contain credit card numbers or similarly sensitive data that can be presented back to the user, you really have to watch out.
Session hijacking attacks are typically perpetrated in one of two ways: session ID guessing and stolen session ID cookies. Session ID guessing involves gathering a sample of session IDs and "guessing" a valid session ID assigned to someone else. ASP.NET apps tend to be much less susceptible to this form of session hijacking because ASP.NET uses highly random 120-bit numbers for its session IDs. Unless you replace ASP.NET session IDs with IDs of your own (last summer I met one developer who had done just that and used sequential session IDs, which are an open door to hackers), you have nothing to fear from session ID guessing.
Stolen session cookies are another matter. Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) can be used to protect session ID cookies on the wire, but few sites restrict session ID cookies to encrypted connections. Even if you use SSL, session ID cookies can be stolen in other ways, notably through cross-site scripting attacks, man-in-the-middle attacks, and gaining physical access to the cookie stores on victims' PCs. Furthermore, executing a successful session hijacking attack with a stolen session ID cookie requires little skill on the part of the attacker. The reason is simple: ASP.NET encodes no information in a session ID cookie other than the session ID. If it receives a cookie containing a valid session ID, ASP.NET connects to the corresponding session, no questions asked.
It's virtually impossible to build a foolproof defense against attacks that rely on stolen session ID cookies, but you can take steps to make it harder. Some Web sites, for example, encode heuristic information such as IP addresses in their session IDs. That doesn't prevent session hijacking altogether—after all, some hackers possess the means to spoof IP addresses, and IP addresses are not a reliable means for identifying callers anyway—but it does raise the bar. Security is all about raising the bar. The harder you make it for a hacker to execute a successful attack, the less likely it is that successful attacks will occur.
Session hijacking remains a serious threat to security. SecureSessionModule raises the bar for hackers who hijack sessions using stolen session IDs by factoring evidence about the session owner into the session ID cookie. That evidence isn't conclusive because neither network addresses nor User-Agent headers can be used reliably to distinguish one user from another, but it nonetheless places an additional hurdle in the path of hackers who are actively seeking to compromise your Web servers by connecting to other users' sessions and grabbing their data.
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